For example, a good structure avoids excessive and unbalanced number criteria for different objectives. More specifically, peer‐reviewed articles usually focus on the identification of the most suitable alternative(s) considering diverse perspectives, gaining a better understanding of how each factor contributes to the final ranking, or exploring alliances between different stakeholders. In 20% of the MCDA, alternatives were designed by the authors, applying: spatial MCDA to identify restoration sites [e.g. 8; 23], and mapping biodiversity assets or habitat suitability [e.g. It is most applicable to solving problems that are characterized as a choice among alternatives. Weighting was well‐addressed in the reviewed MCDA applications: the majority of the articles considered either single or multiple sets of weights, often defined together with stakeholders; only in few articles (2%) was weighting overlooked. Particularly, this paper proposes a content‐based review focusing on studies explicitly addressing nature and biodiversity conservation. In this respect, it is worth noticing that existing frameworks, such as the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (Haines‐Young & Potschin, 2013), could help to structure the objectives during or after an initial round of stakeholder involvement to define the problem. Belton and Stewart (2002) present a detailed analysis of the theoretical foundations of different MCDA approaches as well as their comparative strengths and weaknesses. Overall, the reviewed articles covered five broad and not mutually exclusive topics. Indeed, crucial to this end is a prior problem definition step, which includes identifying the decision question along with relevant decision‐makers, stakeholders, and topic experts, ideally facilitated by a participatory decision analysis expert. There is an increased interest in the use of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to support regulatory and reimbursement decision making. The search resulted in a total of 774 articles. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, Using structured eradication feasibility assessment to prioritize the management of new and emerging invasive alien species in Europe. Karlson, Karlsson, Mörtberg, Olofsson, & Balfors, 2016; Zhang et al., 2013; Zia et al., 2011). Cassava farming practices and their agricultural and environmental impacts: a systematic map protocol. It assists in framing decision problems, illustrating the per-formance of alternatives across criteria, exploring trade-offs, formulating a decision and testing its robustness. Evidence Synthesis as the Basis for Decision Analysis: A Method of Selecting the Best Agricultural Practices for Multiple Ecosystem Services. multi-criteria decision support system is developed. the Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), widely utilized in a range of applications such as combined cooling, heating and power systems , solar projects  and national scale application for the selection of the most suitable renewable energy system [8–10] for their energy supply market. International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management. Optimization of regional forest planning with multiple decision-makers. (2011), which considered peer‐reviewed papers published from 1990 to 2009, as well as to two follow‐up studies by Cegan et al. Analysis of data from 25 PCs from four brands, Toshiba, Dell, HP Compaq and Acer, presents the CPI. Start by creating a weighted decision matrix. Author information: (1)Department of Health Technology and Services Research, MIRA institute, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE, Enschede, The Netherlands. 50; 75], whereas in 47% a justification was also included [e.g. using it as an acronym with different meaning in other fields). The analytic hierarchy process (Saaty, 1980), for example, approaches the issue indirectly, by asking the actors to make a pairwise comparison of alternatives against each criterion, then summarizing the preferences in a normalized matrix. In conservation, this has led to a variety of approaches and applications that, to the best of our knowledge, have never been systematically analysed and reviewed. Nevertheless, only a relatively small percentage of the reviewed articles engaged stakeholders in identifying alternatives and formulating criteria (15% and 35% respectively). 1.1. criteria decision analysis (MCDA) involving scoring of each option on each criterion, and then combining the scores by means of a system of weights to yield an overall ranking for each option. In the analysis stage, most of the reviewed articles did not explicitly discuss the rationale behind the criteria assessment step. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.118362. Spatial extent of the study area: less than 500 km2, between 500 and 250,000 km2, between 250,000 and 1,500,000 km2, or above 1,500,000 km2. 17, No. Test-retest analysis showed weight consistency among techniques, supporting reliability overtime. Most of the articles addressed forest management and restoration (25%), conservation prioritization and planning (24%), and protected area planning and management (21%), while fewer dealt with mapping of biodiversity, wilderness and naturalness (8%). MULTI-CRITERIA DECISION ANALYSIS FOR THE APPRAISAL OF MEDICAL NEEDS: A PILOT STUDY . Usually during deliberation, options are weighed up qualitatively, through discussion. Alternatives are already existing; 2 = Yes. How are criteria assessed (i.e. The review was carried out based on the generalized MCDA process described in Section 2. It is most applicable to solving problems that are characterized as a choice among alternatives. Tversky & Kahneman, 1981). Particularly, when techniques based on weighted linear combination are used, weights do not have an absolute or intrinsic meaning (van Herwijnen, 1999). A multitiered approach for grassland ecosystem services mapping and assessment: The Viva Grass tool. 13; 63] sets of criteria weights respectively. Criteria aggregation refers to the application of a rule (e.g. The basic idea of MCDA methods is to evaluate the performance of alternative courses of action (e.g. The various criteria can be weighted to reflect the relative importance of different criteria. to see whether they report an actual MCDA application in nature or biodiversity conservation), the sample was further reduced to 86 articles (numbered in the Supporting Information). 2 = Weighting performed by the authors through multiple weight sets; 3 = Weighting performed by involving experts or representatives of stakeholders; 4 = Multiple weighting performed by involving experts or representatives of stakeholders. 28; 36] sets of criteria weights. Keywords: multi-criteria decision analysis, multi-attribute decision analysis, weighted linear combination method, WLC, ordered weighted averaging method, OWA Received: July 8, 2009 Decision analysis can be defined as a set of systematic procedures for analysing complex decision problems. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: Artificial intelligence assisted intelligent planning framework for environmental restoration of terrestrial ecosystems. MCDA involves decision makers evaluating the alternatives under consideration based on the explicit weighting of criteria relevant to the overarching decision—in order to, depending on the application, rank (or prioritize) or choose between the alternatives. As shown in Figure 2, the case studies were located in Europe (49%), Asia (17%), North America (13%), Africa (9%), South America (6%) and Australia/New Zealand (6%). Concerning the definition of alternatives, 41% of the reviewed MCDA applications had no pre‐defined alternatives (see Figure 3); this includes studies aimed at selecting sites of biodiversity value suitable for protection or restoration [e.g. The various criteria can be weighted to reflect the relative importance of different criteria. Geographical region of and publication year. Among these, Schwenk, Donovan, Keeton, and Nunery (2012) argued that checking the consistency ratio of the respondents helped stakeholders to discuss and redefine preferences. MCDA involves decision makers evaluating the alternatives under consideration based on the explicit weighting of criteria relevant to the overarching decision—in order to, depending on the application, rank (or prioritize) or choose between the alternatives. And marine protected areas section, the articles the authors themselves multi criteria decision analysis weighting a [... 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