[109] Japan's court system is divided into four basic tiers: the Supreme Court and three levels of lower courts. [313] Since the establishment of the Japan Professional Football League in 1992, association football has gained a wide following. Precipitation is not heavy, but the islands usually develop deep snowbanks in the winter. Tottori 22. Wakayama, 31. Yamaguchi, 36. Beginning in the 12th century, political power was held by a series of military dictators (shōgun) and feudal lords (daimyō), and enforced by a class of warrior nobility (samurai). [43][41] Modern Japan's economic growth began in this period, resulting in roads and water transportation routes, as well as financial instruments such as futures contracts, banking and insurance of the Osaka rice brokers. Japan, island country lying off the east coast of Asia. Mie It is separated from Honshu by the Inland Sea (north) and the Kii Strait (east) and from Kyushu by the Bungo Strait (west). About 98% of the population receives piped water supply from public utilities. Kōchi, 40. In 1931, Japan invaded and occupied Manchuria; following international condemnation of the occupation, it resigned from the League of Nations two years later. The Japanese landscape is rugged, with more than four-fifths of the land surface consisting of mountains. [85], The Pacific coast features a humid subtropical climate that experiences milder winters with occasional snowfall and hot, humid summers because of the southeast seasonal wind. 23. Few tourists have ever heard of them. both of these plates are oceanic so the denser one subducts beneath the other. #1 of 33 Nature & Parks in Iriomote-jima. [276] Buddhism has profoundly impacted Japanese psychology, metaphysics, and esthetics. [29][37] Oda Nobunaga used European technology and firearms to conquer many other daimyōs;[38] his consolidation of power began what was known as the Azuchi–Momoyama period. Nagano Take a look at the stunning coastlines of Aogashima, Kujukushima, Hokkaido, and more. [221] A growing number of younger Japanese are not marrying or remain childless. [196] The Keihin and Hanshin superport hubs are among the largest in the world, at 7.98 and 5.22 million TEU respectively as of 2017[update]. In addition, there are numerous smaller islands, the major groups of which are the Ryukyu (Nansei) Islands (including the island of Okinawa) to the south and west of Kyushu and the Izu, Bonin (Ogasawara), and Volcano (Kazan) islands to the south and east of central Honshu. [102] Environmental issues include urban air pollution (NOx, suspended particulate matter, and toxics), waste management, water eutrophication, nature conservation, climate change, chemical management and international co-operation for conservation. 9. Nearly the entire land area is taken up by the country’s four main islands; from north to south these are Hokkaido (Hokkaidō), Honshu (Honshū), Shikoku, and Kyushu (Kyūshū). The mountains of the Chūgoku and Shikoku regions shelter the Seto Inland Sea from seasonal winds, bringing mild weather year-round. [106] Elected in the 2020 Japanese prime minister election, Yoshihide Suga is Japan's prime minister. [151] As of 2019[update], Japan's main export markets were the United States (19.8 percent) and China (19.1 percent). [86] The Central Highland has a typical inland humid continental climate, with large temperature differences between summer and winter. Japan, after all, is nothing more than an archipelago, so the loss of islands would set a grievous precedent. Okinawa is a subtropical island that has an average yearly temperature of around 68° Fahrenheit (20°Celsius). [195], There are 175 airports in Japan as of 2013[update]. The island of Tsushima lies between northwestern Kyushu and southeastern South Korea and defines the Korea Strait on the Korean side and the Tsushima Strait on the Japanese side. [258], Contemporary Japanese culture combines influences from Asia, Europe and North America. On one of the islands of the Pacific Ocean is the abandoned military equipment of the Japanese Army. Responding to rising concern, the government introduced environmental protection laws in 1970. [39] After the death of Nobunaga in 1582, his successor Toyotomi Hideyoshi unified the nation in the early 1590s and launched two unsuccessful invasions of Korea in 1592 and 1597. [280] Popular music in post-war Japan has been heavily influenced by American and European trends, which has led to the evolution of J-pop. [117], Japan has close economic and military relations with the United States, with which it maintains a security alliance. The population in the island is quite small (around 100 people) but there are more than 100 cats on the island. It is bordered on the west by the Sea of Japan, and extends from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north toward the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south. [52][53], The early 20th century saw a period of Taishō democracy (1912–1926) overshadowed by increasing expansionism and militarization. 32. /TASS/. Tension between old and new is apparent in all phases of Japanese life. The Island of Kyushu. Both Tokyo and Beijing claim the uninhabited islands, known as the Senkakus in Japan and the Diaoyus in China, as their own, but Japan has administered them since 1972. Confucian ideals remain evident in the Japanese concept of society and the self, and in the organization of the government and the structure of society. Cherry blossoms are a symbol of isagiyosa in the sense of embracing the transience of the world. … Osaka 43. [27] These reforms culminated with the promulgation of the Taihō Code, which consolidated existing statutes and established the structure of the central and subordinate local governments. 10,500–ca. It has a population of 3.8 million (as of 2015, 3.1%).It is south of Honshu and northeast of Kyushu. “The island north of … [65] A period of record growth propelled Japan to become the second-largest economy in the world;[65] this ended in the mid-1990s after the popping of an asset price bubble, beginning the "Lost Decade". [271] An account of court life is given in The Pillow Book by Sei Shōnagon, while The Tale of Genji by Murasaki Shikibu is often described as the world's first novel. [279] Kumi-daiko (ensemble drumming) was developed in postwar Japan and became very popular in North America. Even in the countryside, however, the impact of rapid Westernization is evident in many aspects of Japanese life. [270] The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter is considered the oldest extant Japanese narrative. [99] Japan ranks 20th in the 2018 Environmental Performance Index, which measures a nation's commitment to environmental sustainability. [51][47] The Japanese population doubled from 35 million in 1873 to 70 million by 1935, with a significant shift to urbanization. [122] As of 2019[update] Japan is a major importer of Korean music (K-pop), television (K-dramas), and other cultural products. Japan and Russia have never signed a peace treaty to end their World War II conflict. [263] The Shrines of Ise have been celebrated as the prototype of Japanese architecture. Natsume Sōseki and Mori Ōgai were significant novelists in the early 20th century, followed by Ryūnosuke Akutagawa, Jun'ichirō Tanizaki, Kafū Nagai and, more recently, Haruki Murakami and Kenji Nakagami. Japan Wants to Disperse More F-35s Across Its Home Islands. [47] During the Meiji era (1868–1912), the Empire of Japan emerged as the most developed nation in Asia and as an industrialized world power that pursued military conflict to expand its sphere of influence. [13] The first version of the name in English appears in a book published in 1577, which spelled the name as Giapan in a translation of a 1565 Portuguese letter. [253], Health care is provided by national and local governments. [41] The shogunate enacted measures including buke shohatto, as a code of conduct to control the autonomous daimyōs,[42] and in 1639 the isolationist sakoku ("closed country") policy that spanned the two and a half centuries of tenuous political unity known as the Edo period (1603–1868). Shikoku, the smallest of the four main islands of Japan. After a century-long period of civil war, the country was reunified in 1603 under the Tokugawa shogunate, which enacted an isolationist foreign policy. [53], The Empire of Japan invaded other parts of China in 1937, precipitating the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945). [41] The Edo period gave rise to kokugaku ("national studies"), the study of Japan by the Japanese. [41] Subsequent similar treaties with other Western countries brought economic and political crises. [126] Japan has strained relations with China and Taiwan over the Senkaku Islands and the status of Okinotorishima. Murasaki Shikibu's The Tale of Genji and the lyrics of Japan's national anthem "Kimigayo" were written during this time. About three-fourths of the country's terrain is mountainous, concentrating its population of 125.57 million on narrow coastal plains. [35] The succeeding Ashikaga shogunate failed to control the feudal warlords (daimyōs) and a civil war began in 1467, opening the century-long Sengoku period ("Warring States"). ", "Japan Targets to Export More Ships, Revive Global Market Share", "Trends in the Visitor Arrivals to Japan by Year", "The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2017", "Germany Breaks Korea's Six-Year Streak as Most Innovative Nation", "How much does your country invest in R&D? [129] The country's military (the Japan Self-Defense Forces) is restricted by Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution, which renounces Japan's right to declare war or use military force in international disputes. Naoshima, commonly known as Japan’s art island, is a tiny island in the Seto Inland Sea, and one of our absolute favorite places in Japan. ", "Prewar bayonetting martial art makes return to schools", "Favorite sports to watch in Japan as of September 2019", "Soccer as a Popular Sport: Putting Down Roots in Japan", "Every FIFA World Cup champion: Brazil, Germany, Italy historically dominate tournament", "Sato revels in glow of historic Indy 500 triumph", "Le Japon et les 24 Heures du Mans en infographie", "For the Love of Cars: Auto Racing in Japan", "IOC selects Tokyo as host of 2020 Summer Olympic Games", "The Game – World Championships – FIVB Women's World Championships Finals", Prime Minister of Japan and His Cabinet Official website, China–Japan–South Korea trilateral summit, Comprehensive Economic Partnership for East Asia, China–Japan–Korea Friendship Athletic Meeting, Association of East Asian Research Universities, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Japan&oldid=1002411390, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parameters, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2019, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2014, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2018, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2017, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2013, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2016, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with TDVİA identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 24 January 2021, at 09:06. Jurassic Park may be the first thing that comes to mind when you see Aogashima Island from the air - but yes, THIS IS TOKYO! You have to decide whether it’s in the Northern Hemisphere or the Southern Hemisphere. [112], Japan is divided into 47 prefectures, each overseen by an elected governor and legislature. [261] Japanese manga developed in the 20th century and have become popular worldwide. [29] Go-Daigo was defeated by Ashikaga Takauji in 1336, beginning the Muromachi period (1336–1573). [259] Traditional Japanese arts include crafts such as ceramics, textiles, lacquerware, swords and dolls; performances of bunraku, kabuki, noh, dance, and rakugo; and other practices, the tea ceremony, ikebana, martial arts, calligraphy, origami, onsen, Geisha and games. The explorer entered a lunar orbit on October 4, 2007,[189][190] and was deliberately crashed into the Moon on June 11, 2009. [287], Officially, Japan has 16 national, government-recognized holidays. [69], Japan comprises 6852 islands extending along the Pacific coast of Asia. [197], As of 2017[update], 39% of energy in Japan was produced from petroleum, 25% from coal, 23% from natural gas, 3.5% from hydropower and 1.5% from nuclear power. [160] Japan's small agricultural sector is highly subsidized and protected. In the summer, the region sometimes experiences extremely hot temperatures because of the foehn. [68], The climate of Japan is predominantly temperate but varies greatly from north to south. They were the protectors of the Japanese people and the masters of the martial arts. Japan is an East Asian country comprising a chain of islands between the North Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan, at the eastern coast off the Asian Korean Peninsula. [165], Japan has a large industrial capacity and is home to some of the "largest and most technologically advanced producers of motor vehicles, machine tools, steel and nonferrous metals, ships, chemical substances, textiles, and processed foods". [230] Taoism and Confucianism from China have also influenced Japanese beliefs and customs. [41] The resignation of the shōgun led to the Boshin War and the establishment of a centralized state nominally unified under the emperor (the Meiji Restoration). [108], Historically influenced by Chinese law, the Japanese legal system developed independently during the Edo period through texts such as Kujikata Osadamegaki. Gifu ", "Japan's Science and Technology Research Spending at New High", "Why Japan leads industrial robot production", "Science,technology and innovation: Researchers by sex, per million inhabitants, per thousand labour force, per thousand total employment (FTE and HC)", "How things got ugly for some of Japan's biggest brands", "Japan's game market hits record high as consoles decline and mobile grows", "JAXA: Japan's Aerospace Exploration Agency", "Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency Homepage", "Can Robots Build a Moon Base for Astronauts? Tokushima [301] Japanese television dramas are viewed both within Japan and internationally;[302] other popular shows are in the genres of variety shows, comedy, and news programs. [103], Japan is a unitary state and constitutional monarchy in which the power of the Emperor is limited to a ceremonial role. [171][172], Japan attracted 31.9 million international tourists in 2019. [9] Before it was adopted in the early 8th century, the country was known in China as Wa (倭) and in Japan by the endonym Yamato. [14][15], A Paleolithic culture from around 30,000 BC constitutes the first known habitation of the islands of Japan. Japan is a world-renowned powerhouse of animation. The Kerama Islands. Tokyois Japan's capital and l… Dissected plains are common. [68] On May 1, 2019, after the historic abdication of Emperor Akihito, his son Naruhito became Emperor, beginning the Reiwa era. [296] Ingredients such as red bean paste and mochi are used. Japan has a developed system for the protection and promotion of both tangible and intangible Cultural Properties and National Treasures. Precipitation is very heavy, especially during the rainy season. [221][222] Japan's population is expected to drop to around 100 million by 2050. 27. 38. The third largest of Japan's big islands, Kyushu is to the southwest of … Japan is a land of contrasts. Contact with China and Korea in the early centuries ce brought profound changes to Japan, including the Chinese writing system, Buddhism, and many artistic forms from the continent. Yamanashi Honshu is the largest of the four, followed in size by Hokkaido, Kyushu, and Shikoku. [80] It has the 17th highest natural disaster risk as measured in the 2016 World Risk Index. Consuming fugu, a poisonous blowfish delicacy, is illegal for Japanese royalty. Niigata The mountains are for the most part in a youthful stage of dissection in which steep slopes are incised by dense river-valley networks. Hokkaido. [101] In 2020 the government of Japan announced a target of carbon-neutrality by 2050. Humans have occupied Japan for tens of thousands of years, but Japan’s recorded history begins only in the 1st century bce, with mention in Chinese sources. The reopening of the country ushered in contact with the West and a time of unprecedented change. [74] The country's manufacturing output is the third highest in the world as of 2019[update]. [111] Statutory law originates in the legislature, and the constitution requires that the emperor promulgate legislation passed by the Diet without giving him the power to oppose legislation. [106] Japan's main imports are machinery and equipment, fossil fuels, foodstuffs, chemicals, and raw materials for its industries. [244] Since the 1947 Fundamental Law of Education, compulsory education in Japan comprises elementary and junior high school, which together last for nine years. [266] It was not until after World War II that Japanese architects made an impression on the international scene, firstly with the work of architects like Kenzō Tange and then with movements like Metabolism. [188] In 2007, it launched lunar explorer SELENE (Selenological and Engineering Explorer) from Tanegashima Space Center. Coalescing alluvial fans—cone-shaped deposits of alluvium that run together—are formed where rivers emerge from the mountains. Kotodama (言霊) refers to the Japanese belief that mystical powers dwell in words and names. [226], Japan's constitution guarantees full religious freedom. [170] Banking, retail, transportation, and telecommunications are all major industries, with companies such as Toyota, Mitsubishi UFJ, -NTT, ÆON, Softbank, Hitachi, and Itochu listed as among the largest in the world. [191], Japan has invested heavily in transportation infrastructure. More modern-day tastes includes green tea ice cream. [264] Traditional housing and many temple buildings see the use of tatami mats and sliding doors that break down the distinction between rooms and indoor and outdoor space. [64][65] The Allies convened the International Military Tribunal for the Far East to prosecute Japanese leaders for war crimes. [53] The Allies (led by the United States) repatriated millions of Japanese settlers from their former colonies and military camps throughout Asia, largely eliminating the Japanese empire and its influence over the territories it conquered. Shizuoka The Kinkaku Temple (Golden Pavilion) in Kyōto, Japan, was originally built in the 15th century; the present structure dates to the 1950s. [311] Baseball is the most popular spectator sport in the country. 4. [104] Executive power is instead wielded by the Prime Minister of Japan and his Cabinet, whose sovereignty is vested in the Japanese people. Kamome Island; Ko Island (Oshima) Ōshima; Okushiri Island; Teuri Island; Rebun Island; Rishiri Island; Yagishiri Island; Islands in Sea of Japan. Intense disturbances have caused many former alluvial fans, deltas, and sea bottoms to be substantially uplifted to form flat-topped uplands such as those found in the Kantō Plain. [74] The largest domestic airport, Haneda Airport in Tokyo, was Asia's second-busiest airport in 2019. [55] The 1920s saw a political shift towards statism, a period of lawlessness following the 1923 Great Tokyo Earthquake, the passing of laws against political dissent, and a series of attempted coups. two unsuccessful invasions of Korea in 1592 and 1597, international condemnation of the occupation, atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, International Military Tribunal for the Far East, largest earthquakes in its recorded history, Anti-Firearms Squads and Counter-NBC Terrorism Squads, Agriculture, forestry, and fishing in Japan, Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, Programme for International Student Assessment, has one of the world's highest suicide rates, "Official Names of Member States (UNTERM)", Geospatial Information Authority of Japan, "Population Estimates Monthly Report January 2021)", "2015 Population Census: Basic Complete Tabulation on Population and Households", "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2020", "You say 'Nihon,' I say 'Nippon,' or let's call the whole thing 'Japan'? [18] From around 1000 BC, Yayoi people began to enter the archipelago from Kyushu, intermingling with the Jōmon;[19] the Yayoi period saw the introduction of practices including wet-rice farming,[20] a new style of pottery,[21] and metallurgy from China and Korea. The deployment of troops to Iraq and Afghanistan marked the first overseas use of Japan's military since World War II. 30. 5. [36], During the 16th century, Portuguese traders and Jesuit missionaries reached Japan for the first time, initiating direct commercial and cultural exchange between Japan and the West. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, the country maintains Self-Defense Forces that are ranked as the world's fourth-most powerful military. [162], Japan ranked seventh in the world in tonnage of fish caught and captured 3,167,610 metric tons of fish in 2016, down from an annual average of 4,000,000 tons over the previous decade. [106] Around 16 percent of the population were below the poverty line in 2017. In Japan's early modern period, women would blacken their teeth with dye in a process called "ohaguro". These land blocks are the result of intense faulting (movement of adjacent rock masses along a fracture) and warping (bending of the Earth’s crust); the former process is regarded as dominant. Approximately 430 are inhabited. Despite stagnant growth since the Lost Decade, the country's economy remains the third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by PPP. [58] In 1936, Japan signed the Anti-Comintern Pact with Nazi Germany; the 1940 Tripartite Pact made it one of the Axis Powers. [180], Japan leads the world in robotics production and use, supplying 55% of the world's 2017 total. [290], Japanese cuisine offers a vast array of regional specialties that use traditional recipes and local ingredients. Staff are very friendly and helpful. [299] Green tea is produced in Japan and prepared in forms such as matcha, used in the Japanese tea ceremony. Fukushima, 8. [48][49][50] After victories in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895) and the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905), Japan gained control of Taiwan, Korea and the southern half of Sakhalin. [213] Zainichi Koreans,[214] Chinese,[215] Filipinos,[216] Brazilians mostly of Japanese descent,[217] and Peruvians mostly of Japanese descent are among the small minority groups in Japan. Japan Hopes to Find Out", "Japan Successfully Launches Lunar Explorer 'Kaguya, "Japan's transport planning at national level, natural disasters, and their interplays", "Japan's Bullet Trains Are Hitting a Speed Bump", "Japan nuclear power-free as last reactor shuts", "Nuclear power back in Japan for first time since Fukushima", "Mixed progress for Japan's nuclear plant restarts", "A Review of the Evolution of the Japanese Oil Industry, Oil Policy and its Relationship with the Middle East", "Japan's 2014 Strategic Energy Plan: A Planned Energy System Transition", "Population Estimates Monthly Report June 2019", "Japan population drops by record number to 124.8 mil. [2] [3] It has an exclusive economic zone of 4,470,000 km 2 (1,730,000 sq mi). [176] Relative to gross domestic product, Japan's research and development budget is the second highest in the world,[177] with 867,000 researchers sharing a 19-trillion-yen research and development budget as of 2017[update]. [109] Since the late 19th century, the judicial system has been largely based on the civil law of Europe, notably Germany. Japan has two Nobel Prize-winning authors – Yasunari Kawabata (1968) and Kenzaburō Ōe (1994). [159] This results in one of the world's highest levels of crop yields per unit area, with an agricultural self-sufficiency rate of about 50% as of 2018[update]. [247] Starting in April 2016, various schools began the academic year with elementary school and junior high school integrated into one nine-year compulsory schooling program; MEXT plans for this approach to be adopted nationwide. [22] According to legend, Emperor Jimmu (grandson of Amaterasu) founded a kingdom in central Japan in 660 BC, beginning a continuous imperial line. Japan has a large and, to a great extent, ethnically homogeneous population, which is heavily concentrated in the low-lying areas along the Pacific coast of Honshu. 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